General Formatting

The document and the text should be formatted like this document with the Times New Roman font of 12 points, single line spacing, 6-point spacing before and after each paragraph, 2-centimeter margins, and “justified” alignment.

Main titles should be formatted the same way only with 16 points and bold with initial letters capitalized.

Subtitles should be formatted the same way only with 14 points and bold with initial letters capitalized.

Numbers and Dates

Numbers from one to ten should be spelled out most of the time. Numbers higher than ten should be written as numerals, e.g. “We identified 45 cases”. This rule does not apply for the beginning of the sentences, e.g. “Forty-five cases were identified”. The rule does not apply also for large round numbers where part is spelled out and part is written in numerals, e.g. “We identified 10 thousand

Ordinal numbers should be written as “1st”, “2nd”, “3rd”, etc. instead of “1 st ”, “2nd ”, “3 rd ”, etc.

Dates should be written in for format “September 15, 2013” or “September 15” if the year of reference is the current or clear.

Punctuation and Symbols

Punctuation marks go after quotations marks, e.g. During the “April War”, the government and most media denied major losses and called for unity for the sake of the “Homeland”.

The hyphen (with no spaces around it) is used to link words, e.g. non-violent. The dash – (with single spaces around it) is used to introduce an explanatory phrase, e.g. “Even the simplest tasks – washing, dressing, and going to work – were nearly impossible after I broke my leg”.

Single quotation marks are used only as a second quotation or reference within a larger quotation, e.g Referring to the role of the intelligentsia, particularly writers, he stated that “they would be making a greater contribution to the common victory if they did not behave as women writing statements about
humanity for getting ‘likes’”.

Monetary symbols are spelled out, e.g. “Azerbaijani manat”, “Armenian dram”, “Turkish lira”, “American dollars”, etc.

Comma is needed before the “and” introducing the last component in a series, e.g. “blue, red, and white flowers”.


American English spelling (e.g. color, center) should be used. Italics should be used for all foreign to English words, e.g. Closely linked to the maleness of nation
and the femaleness of homeland was the concept of namus (honor).


Citation style is Chicago Manual of styles in-text citations, author-date, unless specified otherwise in this document.

This means you will have in-text references, i.e. the source is inserted into the text. This also means that Footnotes or Endnotes will be kept only for commentary (and additional information). A Bibliography should be inserted at the end of the paper.

You can use Zotero, the “References” function of Microsoft Word or another automated software for citations Using automated citations will allow a number of important things:
– References will be consistent in style. This will be done automatically without you having to remember what needs to be in italics or quotation marks, where to put the year of publication, or the editors name, etc.
– Sources will be transferable from person to person. As you send your document to your colleagues the list of references migrates together with the document, and other people can copy it onto their master lists, modify the references if needed, cite the same source, etc.
– The style is manageable and flexible. You can easily switch between styles – Chicago, MLA, APA, etc. – if need be. Please choose the “Chicago” style for citations.
The bibliography for the end of the paper is generated automatically by hitting one button and can be updated if changes are made later.

This function of Microsoft Word can be found under the “References” tab and in the group “Citations and Bibliography”. Here is the Microsoft Office link with a few instructions for Microsoft Word 2007 and here is link to a video that gives detailed instructions for Microsoft Word 2010

Foreign language sources

For foreign language sources, use the name of the author in English for the in text citation. In the bibliography, start with the name of the author in English, followed by the title in the original language, followed by the English translation of the title and the then the city and publisher name in English.

For example:
Haindrava, I.L., A.A. Sushnetsova, and N.Y. Silaev. 2014. Российско-Грузинские отношения: в поисках новых путей развития. [Russian-Georgian Relations: In the Search for New Avenues of Development]. Accessed on November 19, 2018.

Citing Primary Data and Interviews

Unpublished interviews or focus groups are best cited in text or in footnotes. Citations should include the name of the interviewer and brief identifying information about the interviewee, as appropriate; the place or date of the interview (or both, if known). If your interviewee is an well-known expert or all the interviewees cited in the paper have explicitly given consent to be cited as a source, you may use the real names. In all other instances, for the purposes of the privacy of all or some of your sources, we propose to refrain from naming the interviewee and instead use a generic description such as “focus group participant from Georgia”; or “Interview with a young woman living in a border”.

Interview citation format:

  • You can cite the interviews either as in-text citations or footnotes. If your interview citation is brief, for example “(Focus Group Participant, Armenia; February, 2019)”, you can cite it in-text, in parentheses, at the end of the sentence/paragraph, like you would cite a regular printed source in Chicago style.
  • If your interview citation is longer, or you need to explain additional details about it, use a footnote. For example “Personal communication with the deputy head of the social security division. Brussels. The interview was done in two separate sessions, one on March 15, 2018, and a second one on March 22, 2018”.
  • If you give complete information in the text, you don’t also need an additional citation or a note. For example, if your sentence already states something like “In an interview with the author in Hinsdale, Illinois, on February 20, 2008, Richard Goss claimed that . . .” – in this case no need to cite again.
  • Please be consistent through the paper. Pay a special attention to the uniformity of approach across the parts written by different co-authors.
  • There is also no need to include any of the unpublished interviews in the final bibliography list.

Additional Guidelines

Font: Palatino Linotype size 11
Line spacing: single. 6pts after paragraphs, 0 pts before paragraphs
The sub-headings within the article should be consistent in format and size
The bibliography sections should have the title “Bibliography” and be consistent in format and size.
The “date accessed” in bibliographies should be consistent. For Example, “Jan 2012”.